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The Sex Chromosomes of Frogs: Variability and Tolerance provide Clues to Genome Evolution and Function

By |janvier 15th, 2020|

The Sex Chromosomes of Frogs: Variability and Tolerance provide Clues to Genome Evolution and Function

Jacob W. Malcom, Randal S. Kudra, John H. Malone

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, 06269 USA

Frog intercourse chromosomes offer a system that is ideal advancing our comprehension of genome evolution and function due to the number of intercourse dedication systems within the group, the variety of intercourse chromosome maturation states, the simplicity of experimental manipulation during early development. After quickly sex that is reviewing biology generally speaking, we give attention to what exactly is known about frog sex determination, intercourse chromosome development, and current, genomics-facilitated improvements into the industry. In conclusion we highlight gaps within our present knowledge of frog sex chromosomes, and recommend priorities for future research that may advance broad understanding of gene dosage and sex chromosome development.

Keyword phrases: Homomorphic, aneuploidy, dosage, settlement, intercourse dedication

Introduction

Alterations in gene content quantity are a crucial way to obtain variation for development, but brand new content figures that change gene dosage usually presents a challenge for organismal survival. The scale of copy-number modification can are the removal or duplication of just one or a few genes, to polyploidization of all of the genes through whole-genome replication 1-3. Post-duplication, genes routinely have one of three fates: nonfunctionalization, in which only 1 of this copies keeps any function; subfunctionalization, when the copies diversify to “share” the big event regarding the initial; or neofunctionalization, by which among the gene copies gains a novel function 2, 4, 5. […]